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calcultion of national statistics dse

【DSE Econ】Caluculation of national statistics 最齊精讀|囊括所有背書內容【懶人包】

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Calculation of national statistics dse

國家統計數據是反映一個國家經濟和社會發展狀況的重要指標。透過國家統計數據,我們可以了解一個國家的經濟規模、產業結構、人口結構、收入分配、生活水平等多方面的信息。然而,這些數據的計算過程並不簡單。

在這篇文章中,我們將探討國家統計數據的計算方法和技術,例如國民生產總值、人均收入、勞動力參與率等指標的計算方法,以及調查設計、樣本選擇、資料收集和統計分析等技術。通過深入了解這些計算過程和技術,讀者可以更好地理解國家統計數據的意義和價值,也可以更好地使用和應用這些數據進行經濟和社會分析,以推動國家的經濟和社會發展。

Difference between nominal and real GDP

Nominal GDP = current year price level*real output

 

Real GDP = base year price level x real output

 

Real GDP = Nominal GDP x Price level in base year / Price level in current year

 

% change in GDPn = % change in GDPr + % change in P


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Per capital GDP

Per capita GDPn = GDPn / Total population

  

Per capita GDPr = GDPr / Total population

 

% change in Per capital GDPn/r = % change in GDPn/r – % change in total population

Full employment GDP

It is the GDP when an economy useu all of iqts resources efficiently.

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Uses of national income statistics

Assess the economic performance of an economy or an industry

 

Reflect the economic welfare of an economy

 

Facilitate international comparison

Limitations of national income statistics

  1. When GDP consist of a large proportion of investment and exports, GDP may overestimate the standard of living
  2. The value of some unpaid services is not counted, GDP may underestimate the standard of living.
  3. The value of leisure is not counted, GDP cannot reflect the actual standard of living when leisure increases/decreases.
  4. GDP may overestimate the standard of living since undesirable effects of production are not considered.
  5. Since the distribution of income is not reflected in GDP, if the income distribution is rather uneven, GDP may overestimate the standard of living.


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Price index indicating the price level

Consumer price index (CPI)

It is a figure that shows the price level of consumer goods and services purchased by domestic households in a specific period relative to the base year price level.

 

CPI(A), CPI(B) and CPI(C) reflect the price levels of products generally purchased by domestic households in the lower, medium and higher expenditure ranges.

 

The composite CPI reflects the price level of products generally purchased by the above households.

GDP deflator

It is a figure that shows the price level of goods and services related to GDP in a specific period relative to the base year price level.

 

GDP deflator = Nominal GDP / Real GDP x 100


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Differences between CPI and GDP deflator

 

CPI

GDP deflator

Coverage

Only consumer goods and services purchased by domestic households

Both consumer and producer goods and services related to GDP

Advantage

Can better reflect the cost of living

Can better reflect the price level and the purchasing power of money

Weights

Updated every 5 years in fixed weights

Updated every year in variable weights


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